Not only is water crucial for human beings’ survival but also essential for all the environmental ecosystems. The purity of water has been severely compromised following increased pollution primarily attributed to industrialization, ecological degradation and contaminated water systems such as pipe systems, storage units, and taps. We cannot assume anymore that clear water is safe as water scientists and biologists have proven that most contaminants are not visible to the naked eye. Fortunately, with the help of water purification systems it is possible to filter out harmful substances that are present in water and make it clean for drinking.
Some of these contaminants are;
It is a type of gas that is flammable and odorless. Sources of this gas are pesticides, fertilizers, resins, etc. The gas pollutes water through two processes oxidation, leaching, and chlorination. The scientists have cautioned that the gas is carcinogenic.
The gas is ubiquitous in tap water because of the frequent use of chlorination in water purification. Additionally, the use of fertilizers to increase yields has led to its increase in the soil. The contaminant gas can is filtered in water treatment systems using GAC and anthracite coal methods.
Mercury is one of the most harmful contaminants in tap water. The substance pollutes water through deposition from the atmosphere-rain, snow-dry article. Other lesser sources are dumping from mines, natural mercury, and industrial waste to water sources.
The contaminant transforms to methylmercury in water. This substance is a neurotoxin- hampers brain development in children and results in mental disorder symptoms, cerebral palsy, paralysis, and dysesthesia. Scientists also believe that the contaminant can cause cardiovascular diseases.
Mercury can be filtered of methylmercury using coagulation, lime softening, reverse osmosis and granular activated carbon.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has stated that Lead should not be exposed to human beings at all. Lead contaminates the water through lead-coated water pipes. Water taps in homes built before 1986 have higher lead contamination due to the higher use of lead in piping systems. Hot water and acidic water have the highest concentrations of Lead.
This substance affects children, pregnant mothers, and adults in different ways. In children, lead exposure leads to Lower IQ, hyperactivity disorders, and depressed development. To adults, lead causes kidney and liver failures, cardiovascular complications and, complicated pregnancies.
Lead can be purified from water through reverse osmosis, carbon filtration and distillation water purification.
It is a naturally occurring mineral used in water pipe systems for hot water transmission due to its ability to withstand high temperatures. Over time, the asbestos-coated piping gets weakened and some particles get released into the water systems. The side effects of asbestos are cancer, asbestosis, and mesothelioma.
Asbestos-contaminated water from the taps can be avoided through the installation of a water purification system-Domestic carbon filters.
It is a radioactive, colorless and odorless gas whose exposure might lead to lung cancer in most cases. The gas contaminates water from underground sources with naturally occurring Radon. The USEPA has not set a limit of safe consumption level, and strongly advises people not to drink tap water directly from underground sources unless tasted.
The US Centre for Disease and Control and Prevention CDCP proposes the use of aeration or granular activated carbon water purification systems for underground water.